Using audio and video equipment

On this post, i’ll explain the basic setting for video and record, as well the use of light to adjust the look of the enviroment and health and safety considerations while using a studio.

The Canon DSLR is not a video camera. It’s actually a still camera that just happens to also capture video. But these camera has a lot advantages that can work perfectly for a begginer that wants to create with a professional look.

Video settings: frame rate and aspect ratio

The ideal resolution to film is 1920×1080 25 frames per second to achieve a more cinematic look. This produces the highest resolution and highest quality footage the camera can shoot.

If you’d like to shoot at a higher frame rate (to produce slow-motion footage per instance) look for the 1280×720 60 frames per second.

movie-rec-size

ISO

The default ISO set is 400 for most environments. ISO determines how sensitive the camera is to light. The higher the ISO, the brighter the image will be. The lower the number, the darker the image will be.

Use a high ISO (greater than ISO 640) if you’re shooting inside without a ton of ambient light. Keep your ISO number low when you’re shooting in broad daylight outside or under bright studio lights. It’s quite advantageous that you can raise and lower the ISO but, as you raise the ISO, you introduce noise and grain to your picture, so you’ll want to do so carefully. The camera’s going to perform best at the lower end of the ISO range.

iso-sensitivity-comparison

Aperture

Aperture works just like a pupil. When the camera’s diaphragm is dilated (open), more light will get in. When it’s more contracted (closed), less light gets let in. So use a small aperture, like f/1.8, to let a ton of light into the camera in lower-lighting situations. If you’re shooting outside, you might want to close the aperture to a larger number, like f/10, to limit the amount of light hitting the camera.

Aperture also controls depth of field. To get a blurry and out-of-focus background, keep the aperture as wide (like f/1.8) as possible. To make sure everything in the shot is in focus (deep focus), stop down to a closed aperture (like f/22) to flatten out the image.

f-stop-depth-of-field

Shutter speed

Shutter speed determines the amount of time the camera sensor is exposed to light. The longer the shutter is open (like 1/30th of a second), the more light hits the sensor (and the more blurry on-screen movement will be). With a fast shutter speed, like 1/500th of a second, less light will hit the sensor, meaning you can freeze motion and produce crisper, choppier footage.

White balance and color temperature

Different light sources, like a light bulb and the sun, have very different temperatures. White balance quite literally tells your camera the color temperature of the light you’re shooting.

Try to match the white balance preset to the color of light you’re shooting with. For example, if you’re in broad daylight outside, look for the sun icon. If you’re shooting inside under white fluorescent lights, use the fluorescent bulb preset. If you’re shooting with traditional studio lights or halogen bulbs, look for the little tungsten bulb icon.

white_balance_explained11

Changing lenses

One of the greatest advantagens of the Canon DSLR is the feature to change lens, this way you can have more control of the shoot of your film. For instance:

The 50mm lens. There are many advantages to using the 50 millimeter fixed prime lens. It has a low f-stop, which means it’s going to let more light in, resulting in better low-light performance. As you let more light in and open up that aperture, you get that nice cinematic shallow depth of field. In general, you can produce a better picture with a fixed lens, which means sharper images, quicker focusing speed, and way more potential to get artistic and blur the background.

Second is the Canon 24-105mm zoom lens. The advantage of a zoom lens, is that it’s great for on-the-fly shooting. If you don’t know exactly what your shot’s going to look like, you can get multiple perspectives with the zoom lens all from one location.

Lens can be quite expensive, but is worth to have different lens, and is also something to try before you buy. There are a bunch of rental houses that have great deals on lens rentals for the day, week, or even month.

Recording audio

Regardless of the microphone quality of the camera, is good to keep the sound on during filming, like this it will be easier the sync later with another recorded audio from another device.

Bellow are listed the main equipment you will need for sound recording:

Audio Record device – Are used to record sound onto a SD Card, they can be connected to the mic or have a XLR cable attached to them.

sound-device1

Shot Gun microphone is the most directional of microphone options. It has a very narrow pick up pattern, wich means it picks up sound from the front and rejects sound from other directions. Point the shotgun mic at something, and it’s going to focus on it like a laser beam.

shotgun-0f36775cf8775bfc842503516829fc34

Headphones are required for the person controlling the audio record, like this the person will control if the audio is been recorded or not and also the levels of the sound.

 

Lights

Effective lighting for your video is all a matter of taste. If you look critically at your shoot, you will see the areas that could use some supplemental lighting. Shooting in a studio, is place where you need to experiment a lot with lighting to create the atmosphere that you’re looking for.

Tungsten 

This is the standard type of lights we will be using in the studio, they generate a lot of heat so be careful when handling and make sure to use gloves. You will need to use blue gels when using in daylight.

LED

The other type of lights you will see in the studio is LED Panel Lights unlike tungsten these don’t generate much heat and use very little power, there are dials on the side of these for colour balance control and it can vary from 3200 to 5400.

Fluorescent

These are also similar to LED as they don’t run as hot, but their colour balance is known to change since we do not have the expensive models. The tubes on these lights are interchangeable and come with daylight and tungsten tubes.

 

THREE POINT LIGHTING

luces1

IS A TECHNIQUE USED IN TRADITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND CINEMATOGRAPHY. ITS PURPOSE IS TO ILLUMINATE A SUBJECT IN AN EFFECTIVE WAY THAT IS NOT ONLY PLEASING TO THE EYES BUT ALSO RELATIVELY SIMPLE IN ITS APPROACH. BY USING THREE SEPARATE LIGHTS YOU CAN CONTROL HOW THE PERSON OR THE OBJECT IS ILLUMINATE.

In the image we can see the three lights, the one in colour red is the Key Light. Usually the key light it is placed to the right of the camera. The light with the blue square is the     Fill Light. The porpoise  fill light is illuminate those dark spots on the subject that the key light

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